PMPA Craftsman Cribsheet #126:
AISI System of Identification

Published April 1, 2024

By Miles Free III, Director of Industry Affairs, PMPA

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Prior to the Society of Automotive Engineers taking responsibility for Steel Grade nomenclature in the United States (1995), the American Iron and Steel Institute determined U.S. standard steel grades in collaboration with SAE. As many legacy prints for federal and defense procurement may still have prior AISI Grade designations, here are the letters used for prefixes and suffixes employed by the former AISI designation system. Th ese notes are based on the AISI numbering system as published in the February 10, 1942, edition of the SAE Handbook.
Capital letters designate prefixes to indicate method of steel manufacture. Lowercase letters used as suffixes to indicate various special requirements affecting quality. Numbers are used to indicate the grades of steel by chemical composition.

Letter Prefixes

A designates basic open-hearth alloy steels
B denotes acid bessemer carbon steel
C denotes basic open-hearth carbon steel
CB denotes either acid bessemer or basic open-hearth
carbon steel at option of manufacturer
D denotes acid open-hearth carbon steel
E designates electric furnace alloy Steel

 

Letter Suffixes

a Restricted chemical compositions closer (tighter) than
standard ranges
b Bearing steel quality
c Guaranteed segregation limits affected by methods of
sampling
d Special discard
e Homogeneity tests (macro-etch)
f Rifle barrel quality
g Limited austenitic grain size
h Guaranteed hardenability (This evolved into the H-band steels, with a capital H suffix after the four numeric digit grade indicating wider chemical range and compliance with hardenability curves)
i Guaranteed conformity to non-metallic
inclusions standards
j Fracture test
t Extensometer test
v Aircraft quality or Magnaflux testing requirement

 

Other Items to Keep in Mind

Acid bessemer carbon steel is not furnished with specified silicon content; for standard basic open-hearth carbon steels, silicon may be ordered only as 0.10% maximum; 0.10-0.20%; or 0.15-0.30 %. (Special practices were required to comply with silicon specifi cations.)
For open-hearth alloy and electric furnace alloy steels, the lowest standard maximum phosphorus and sulfur is 0.05% weight each. Lowest standard minimum silicon is 0.15% for both open-hearth acid and acid electric furnace processes.
NE denotes a National Emergency standard steel designation promulgated by Office of Production Management.

 

Author

Miles Free III

Miles Free III is the PMPA Director of Industry Affairs with over 50 years of experience in the areas of manufacturing, quality and steelmaking. Miles’ podcast is at pmpa.org/podcast
Email: gro.apmp@eerfm — Website: pmpa.org.

STATE OF MANUFACTURING – New Jersey Manufacturing

by Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Published April 1, 2024

Download Magazine Article

Fabricated Metal Products Manufacturing is a subsector of manufacturing that makes critical goods from metal components.

Precision Turned Products Manufacturing is a subsector of fabricated metal product manufacturing that makes the components that MAKE IT WORK!

 

NEW JERSEY ECONOMIC OUTPUT

New Jersey Manufacturing
NAICS 31-33
$60,500,000,000

Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332
$4,889,745,000

Precision Turned Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332721
$231,375,000

NEW JERSEY MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS FOR

Manufacturing Is Productivity –9.47% of New Jersey’s total output (GDP)

Manufacturing Builds Businesses –6,835 manufacturing establishments in the state of New Jersey.

Manufacturing Creates Jobs – 6.2% of all New Jersey’s employees are in the manufacturing sector. (252,000 employees)

Manufacturing produces for New Jersey!

  • Manufacturing is the 5th largest GDP Producer in New Jersey.
  • Fabricated metals rank the 6th of the manufacturing sectors in New Jersey.

New Jersey is a great place for a career in manufacturing

  • Manufacturing jobs pay on average 39% over the average job in New Jersey. (according to NAM.org)
  • Newark, Clifton, Jersey City and Fairfield account for 67% of manufacturing jobs in New Jersey.
  • New Jersey has averaged 1% growth per year from 1997 until 2021 in the manufacturing sector.

 

Sources: NAM.org, US Census, statista.com, IndustrySelect.com
Data selected to show relative values. May not be directly comparable due to differences in sampling, analysis, or date obtained.

 

 

 

 

Author

Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Email: gro.apmp@noskcajj — Website: pmpa.org.

Shop and School Symbiosis

PMPA member Clippard Instrument Laboratory has been working with Butler Tech for over 45 years and the benefits keep growing.

by Carli Kistler-Miller

Director of Programs & Marketing, PMPA

Published April 1, 2024

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What happens when a local precision machining shop supports a local trade school? Th e shop recruits some of the best students and the school is able to maintain its program. Win-win. Clippard in Cincinnati, Ohio has been working with Butler Tech in Colerain Township, Ohio for over 45 years. Clippard supplies Butler Tech with material, helps with mock interviews, mentors and hires students, and Clippard’s maintenance employees help install machines and fix equipment. Every year, Butler Tech holds a skills contest and Clippard is always on hand.

SkillsUSA Contest

According to Dave Fox, Butler Tech’s machine shop teacher, “Butler Tech is affiliated with many of the high schools in the Cincinnati area and have different programs to offer. We have always had state machining competitions for our students, but we thought it would be a good idea to invite the business community to watch.” The local contest was held at Butler Tech on January 23, 2024. Th e contest is limited to 25 students. During the competition, high school junior and senior students are given a print that they must make on a manual mill or lathe and on a CNC mill and lathe. There are four winners who move onto the Southwest Regional Championship. But everyone is a winner because of the 25 contestants, all 25 received job offers, which, according to Dave, is normal. How is this possible? Because Butler Tech invited local businesses to the contest and 50 attended. Also in attendance were parents, school administration, politicians, high school freshman and sophomore students and news media. Dave is proud to share that “Every year we have more employers asking how they can be part of the program and what they need to do to be able to hire some of the 25 students that are in the program.”

Clippard

Robin Rutschilling, director of operations for Clippard, cannot overstate the positive effects of their relationship with Butler Tech. It’s not just about access to talent — which is a big benefit — but it’s about their community. Th e Colerain Township community s important to the Clippard family, and their participation with Butler Tech is a glowing example of how businesses and schools can work together. Bill Clippard Sr. started serving on Butler Tech’s advisory committee 45 years ago and, since then, Clippard has been able to help the program grow.
Butler Tech’s machining program started with manual machines and with the help of an enthusiastic teacher, a supportive administration, engaged politicians, Clippard
and additional local businesses, the program now has CNC machines, simulators and an upgraded workspace. All working together and all benefiting.
When Robin talks about programs, open houses or anything related to Butler Tech, he uses the word “we” instead of “they” without realizing it. Th at tells the whole story.

 

 

Author

Carli Kistler-Miller, MBA has over 25 years of experience with
communications, event/meeting planning, marketing, writing and
operations. Email: gro.apmp@rellimc — Website: pmpa.org.

My Journey to an Accidental Career
that Became My Passion

“Machining was not the career I chose; it chose me.”

by David Wynn

Director of Technical Services, PMPA

Published April 1, 2024

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I recently stepped into the director of technical services role at PMPA. Working for PMPA is a fun and exciting journey. I get to meet lots of great people. I get to see the best manufacturing facilities in the world. My favorite part is helping our members solve their problems. Moving into the director position is just the next step in my transition
into Miles Free’s role with PMPA, so I thought it would be good for me to give you a brief history of how I got where I am.

I started my college career as a dual chemistry and biology major while working in my family’s shop. While attending college, I noticed that I had a passion for two things: machining and business. I spent my spare time studying both. It occurred to me that I should be studying my passion, rather than just trying to get a rubber stamp on a piece of paper. So, after two years I switched to a business degree and earned a degree in finance-economics with a minor in accounting, all while working at my family’s machine shop.

After graduating college, I started moving more into the management side of the business. I had a professor pushing me to get my MBA, so I re-enrolled in college.
This time, all my classes were at night, which allowed me to work full time in the shop. While I was an undergrad, machining was a fun hobby, but now it was becoming a career — being in a small family shop you had to get your hands in a little bit of everything.

While studying for my MBA, I started working on my “masters in machining” at the school of hard knocks and real-world teaching by my grandfather. My grandfather had worked on Brown and Sharpes for several companies in the Chicago area. After the war, he worked primarily at Teletype. Th e teletype machine was a mechanical marvel full of screw machine parts. My grandfather got to see about everything you could do with a Brown and Sharpe while he was there. When it came to teaching, my grandfather demanded perfection. When I would grind a cutoff tool, he would send me back to the grinder if it did not have a mirror finish. I almost wore a whole blade down the first time before he would accept it. I spent time learning flat die thread rollers, the burnishing machine and various other mechanical equipment. 

After earning my MBA, my grandfather and grandmother were getting older and planning to retire. My dad and I decided to take over the business. I had spent seven years on Brown and Sharpes at this point, but my skill could not compare to my grandfather’s 60-plus years of experience. I had to find a way to make the business my own. I challenged myself to find a
way to produce the parts as, or more, efficiently while maintaining quality. Th is is where PMPA and Swiss machines enter the story.

For years I had collected old NSMPA manuals (NSMPA became PMPA in the mid 1990s). Th e manuals were the holy grail of information in our industry. I called and talked with Miles at PMPA, and my dad and I decided to join the organization. My first Management Update (MU) conference was in San Antonio, Texas, which was special to me because I met so many of the people who ended up mentoring me. Th e connections I made at that first MU have carried my family’s business to this day; they guided us into Swiss machines. It totally changed our business dynamic. Th e shop still runs Brown and Sharpe screw machines, but only when it makes sense.

I fell in love with the parallel processing of Swiss just like screw machines — Swiss just takes a different mindset. I also learned mill-turn, CNC lathes and spent a little bit of time on CNC mills, in addition to mastering the implementation of information technology throughout the business.

Machining was not the career I chose, it chose me. With my new position at PMPA, I am honored to be able to continue working with PMPA members and I’m proud to be a part of the organization’s continuous improvement.

PMPA is a fantastic organization that has been helping small manufacturers become world class for over 90 years. I plan to be a part of the great tradition of providing high-value, relevant and useful content that will help our members adapt and thrive. I like to say that I work in the solutions department, and I look forward to being your problem solver.

 

Author

David Wynn is the PMPA Director of Technical Services with over 20 years of experience in the areas of manufacturing, quality, ownership, IT and economics. Email David

 

PMPA Craftsman Cribsheet #125:
ISO (Metric)Threading Identification

Our example insert is 16ER24UNHG.

Published March 1, 2024

By David Wynn, Technical Services Manager, PMPA

Download/View Cribsheet

 

 

 

 

 

Author

David Wynn

David Wynn, MBA, is the PMPA Technical Services Manager with over 20 years of experience in the areas of manufacturing, quality, ownership, IT and economics. Email: gro.apmp@nnywd — Website: pmpa.org.

STATE OF MANUFACTURING – Delaware Manufacturing

by Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Published March 1, 2024

Download Magazine Article

Fabricated Metal Products Manufacturing is a subsector of manufacturing that makes critical goods from metal components.

Precision Turned Products Manufacturing is a subsector of fabricated metal product manufacturing that makes the components that MAKE IT WORK!

 

DELAWARE ECONOMIC OUTPUT

Delaware Manufacturing
NAICS 31-33
$4,860,000,000

Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332
$379,661,000

Precision Turned Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332721
$4,333,000

DELAWARE MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS FOR

Manufacturing Is Productivity –6.3% of Delaware’s total output (GDP)

Manufacturing Builds Businesses –528 manufacturing establishments in the state of Delaware.

Manufacturing Creates Jobs – 5.84% of all Delaware’s employees are in the manufacturing sector. (25,000 employees)

Manufacturing produces for Delaware!

  • Manufacturing is the 5th largest GDP Producer in Delaware.
  • Fabricated metals rank the 9th of the manufacturing sector in Delaware.

Delaware is a great place for a career in manufacturing

  • Manufacturing jobs pay on average 28% over the average job in Delaware. (according to NAM.org)
  • Wilmington is Delaware’s largest city based on number for manufacturing jobs with over 8,500 workers (34%) in Wilmington alone.

 

Sources: NAM.org, US Census, statista.com, IndustrySelect.com
Data selected to show relative values. May not be directly comparable due to differences in sampling, analysis, or date obtained.

 

 

 

 

Author

Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Email: gro.apmp@noskcajj — Website: pmpa.org.

Implementation and Tracking
Strategic Planning I Part 2

A strategic plan that you have to dust off, does not advance your business.

by Carli Kistler-Miller

Director of Programs & Marketing, PMPA

Published March 1, 2024

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In last month’s article, we created a strategic plan. This plan is not a new year’s resolution to be ignored in a month. This plan needs to be implemented, maintained and updated. But there are a lot of strategies and tactics. Where to begin?

Start at the Beginning

As Desmond Tutu once said, “there is only one way to eat an elephant: a bite at a time:’ The strategic plan is the elephant and each tactic will consist of bites. The bites are the actions taken to complete the tactic.
The tactic owner should break out the action steps needed to achieve the tactic in the designated timeframe. Why the tactic owner and not the shop owner/strategic plan owner? Because the tactic owner will have the expertise to know what it will take to achieve the tactic.
Each action step should have its own deadline. Consider creating a team to help implement the tactic. If the tactic has a numerical goal to it ( for example,
36 new customers), then it can be broken down into action items (three new customers per month). Once the necessary people and timeframe are in place, start taking bites: step one, then two and so on.

Tracking

The strategic plan needs to be tracked by the plan owner to provide accountability and status. It also needs to be accessible to others so that the tactic owners are able to update the status of the tactics. Here are a few of the available options:
Microsoft Excel/spreadsheet. The plan can be listed on one tab or make each tab a goal or a strategy. There are a variety of ways to set it up. Make sure to include the deadline and a place for the tactic owner to update the status.
Microsoft Planner/Trello. Project management software can be populated with the plan, owners and deadlines assigned, and the updates can be entered in the comments, which would then be sent to anyone assigned to that task.
Strategic planning software. There are several software options specifically for strategic planning that allow for assignments, reminders and reporting.
When do the tactics get updated? That’s up to the owner
of the strategic plan ( usually the shop owner or chief of operations). The timing of the updates should correlate
with the tactic action items. There could be a routine time such as quarterly or the first of the month. They could also
be specific to the tactic. There is a delicate balance between the need for updates and overwhelming the tactic owner with too many update deadlines. 

 

 

 

Author

Carli Kistler-Miller, MBA has over 25 years of experience with
communications, event/meeting planning, marketing, writing and
operations. Email: gro.apmp@rellimc — Website: pmpa.org.

Onshoring Weather Report: Strong Tailwinds!

Onshoring, reshoring, nearshoring: these terms are showing up with increasing frequency in the news and online. But is there evidence that these are real?

by Miles Free III

Director of Industry Affairs, PMPA

Published March 1, 2024

Download Magazine Article

 

 

There can be little doubt that the return of manufacturing — and manufacturing jobs — to North America is happening. But what are the facts? How can we know that
this is a real, sustainable trend worthy of our investment?

The Opportunity of Manufacturing
According to a report by Deloitte and the Manufacturing Institute, over the next decade, 4 million manufacturing jobs will likely be needed — and 2.1 million are expected
to go unfilled — if we do not inspire more people to pursue modern manufacturing careers (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324a). Clearly, the potential for employment exists.

New Private Construction for Manufacturing
A look at new private construction for manufacturing is convincing. The hockey stick graph shown below represents investment in construction of new manufacturing facilities (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324b). Total private construction spending for manufacturing in the United States was $18.867 billion in October 2023 — its all-time high. How many manufacturing jobs will result from this dramatic increase in manufacturing facility construction?

Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign companies are investing in the U.S., and those investments result in jobs. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in U.S. manufacturing was $5,254.816 billion in 2022, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’ report “Direct Investment by Country and Industry 2022” (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324c).
That investment is up almost 20% from 2019’s $4,398.763 billion in Manufacturing FDI. According to the report “FDI in Manufacturing 2017,” produced by Trade.gov, more than
2.4 million U.S. jobs in manufacturing are supported by FDI (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324d).
FDI in manufacturing is a major force driving manufacturing employment in the U.S.

Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign companies are investing in the U.S., and those investments result in jobs. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in U.S. manufacturing was $5,254.816 billion in 2022, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’ report “Direct Investment by Country and Industry 2022” (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324c).
That investment is up almost 20% from 2019’s $4,398.763 billion in Manufacturing FDI. According to the report “FDI in Manufacturing 2017,” produced by Trade.gov, more than
2.4 million U.S. jobs in manufacturing are supported by FDI (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324d).
FDI in manufacturing is a major force driving manufacturing employment in the U.S.

Supply Chains and Shipping Rates
Since the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, the term “supply chain disruptions” has become an almost everyday phrase. While the pandemic is no longer the operative cause, Reuters reported on January 4, 2024, that “Rates for shipments from Asia to North America’s East Coast climbed 55% to $3,900 per 40-foot container. West Coast prices jumped 63% to more than $2,700 ahead of expected cargo diversions to avoid Red Sea-related issues.” While these are serious increases, they are nowhere near those fueled by the prior pandemic: “$14,000
per 40-foot container for Asia to North Europe and the Mediterranean and $22,000 for Asia to North America’s East Coast” ( reut.rs/ 48T2FTv ).
Rate increases like these are no longer acceptable to consumer pocketbooks already stretched by inflation. Buying (and manufacturing) local makes economic sense today, by reducing the direct costs of global shipping, as well as eliminating the costs of delays by events that delay the shipping process – weather, disease, labor disputes. The lack of a logical reason to purchase globally – in the face of so many opportunities for delay and freight cost increases – supports the idea that manufacturing in the U.S. is likely to continue its renaissance. 

Boardroom Sentiment
Bank of America strategist, Savita Subramanian, posted a May 2023 note to clients that mentions of reshoring on earnings calls from S&P 500 CEOs have risen 128% year over year (cnb.cx/3vYoZMY). S&P 500 companies produce durable manufactured goods that need precision machined products to function – automotive, appliance and aerospace to name a few – so a mention by CEOs of these companies is certainly a forward-looking indicator of their intentions and actions in this space.
According to The Conference Board “Executive mentions of nearshoring/reshoring/onshoring in earnings calls and conferences are up 1,100% since the start of the pandemic” (bit.ly/PMPA-PM0324e). Up 1,100%. That’s convincing. And they are the customers for what we make in our precision machining shops.

Chinese Manufacturing
Since 2001, when China became a member of the World Trade Organization, (WTO) China has been seen as the “workshop to the world:’ This narrative has diminished as crises in real estate, high unemployment and a crackdown on its technology sector have dampened China’s growth, in addition to a shrinking population. According to Statista, China’s labor force peaked at 800.91 million in 2015; in 2022, it had declined to 768.63 million (bit.ly/ PMPA-PM0324f).
Nor is Chinese labor a low-cost bargain. According to Global Data, “China’s labor cost index in 2021 stood at 138. The index recorded a growth of 2.8% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Between 2010-2021, the index in China increased by 37.9%” (bit.ly/PMPA­PM0324g). Up 37.98%. China GDP is also declining, as its “share of Global GDP fell in dollar terms for the first time in 29 years:’ according to NikkeiAsia ( s.nikkei.com/ 48KxFVD ).
What are the “strong tailwinds” pushing the onshoring, reshoring and nearshoring trend in manufacturing today? We see the strong boom in new construction for manufacturing as one. Increasing FDI counts as another. Chaos in supply chains and out of control shipping costs are another factor convincing executives to buy local.
Executives themselves continue to announce their plans to bring manufacturing back, and in China, the demographics, and the economic data are showing that the economy may have peaked in terms of its output as a share of global GDP. And I haven’t even mentioned­ U.S. government investments, incentives and efforts to promote domestic production of semiconductor chips and other high-technology products.
These are strong tailwinds. I’m not a weather forecaster, but the data I am seeing leads me to believe that manufacturing and manufacturing employment will be strong for the foreseeable future.

 

 

Author

Miles Free III is the PMPA Director of Industry Affairs with over 50 years of experience in the areas of manufacturing, quality and steelmaking. Miles’ podcast is at pmpa.org/podcast. Email Miles

 

STATE OF MANUFACTURING – Kentucky Manufacturing

by Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Published February 1, 2024

Download Magazine Article

Fabricated Metal Products Manufacturing is a subsector of manufacturing that makes critical goods from metal components.

Precision Turned Products Manufacturing is a subsector of fabricated metal product manufacturing that makes the components that MAKE IT WORK!

 

KENTUCKY ECONOMIC OUTPUT

Kentucky Manufacturing
NAICS 31-33
$41,190,000,000

Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332
$5,458,451,000

Precision Turned Product Manufacturing
NAICS 332721
$89,273,000

KENTUCKY MANUFACTURING ACCOUNTS FOR

Manufacturing Is Productivity –17.39% of the Kentucky total output (GDP)

Manufacturing Builds Businesses –3,233 manufacturing establishments in the state of Kentucky.

Manufacturing Creates Jobs – 13.16% of all Kentucky employees are in the manufacturing sector. (250,000 employees)

Manufacturing produces for Kentucky!

  • Manufacturing is the largest GDP Producer in Kentucky.
  • Fabricated metals rank the 4th of the manufacturing sector in Kentucky.

Kentucky is a great place for a career in manufacturing

  • Manufacturing jobs pay on average 33% over the average job in Kentucky. (according to NAM.org)
  • Louisville is Kentucky’s top city for manufacturing. Louisville is home to over 67,000 manufacturing jobs and ranks first in the USA for manufacturing growth..

 

Sources: NAM.org, US Census, statista.com
Data selected to show relative values. May not be directly comparable due to differences in sampling, analysis, or date obtained.

 

 

 

 

Author

Joe Jackson

Marketing & Events Assistant, PMPA

Email: gro.apmp@noskcajj — Website: pmpa.org.